The Shona Tribe numbers over 8 million people in Zimbabwe alone. This is about 85 percent of that country’s population. Another 7 million live in neighboring Botswana, South Africa and Mozambique. The Shona arrived in Zimbabwe well over a thousand years ago, and they engaged in both herding and farming. They also were involved in the early mining of copper, iron and gold. They were involved in the ivory trade with both the Portuguese and the Arabs as early as the fifteenth century. Zimbabwe received its name from the Rozwi Shona dynasty. The word “Zimbabwe” means “great stone house”, and refers to the ruins of Great Zimbabwe built centuries ago by the ancestors of the Shona. These massive stone buildings were built with extraordinary precision. They are located near what is now the town of Masvingo in Zimbabwe. The Shona Tribe is composed of five major clans. These are the Zezuru, Korekore, Karanga, Manyika and the Kalanga. Within clans there are special totems, usually named after animals. The ancestor of the clan was the originator of the totems. For example, totem groups can include representative animals such as the zebra, hippo, lions and elephants. Those born within such a clan cannot marry anyone with their same totem, because of the familial lineage dating back to the common ancestor. The clan may also be named after a body part such as the heart. The Shona language has primary groups of dialects. These correspond to the different Shona regions where different clans have settled. Within them there are even further sub-divisions. It is typically easy for a Shona person to identify the region where a person lives by the tonal properties and specific dialect an individual uses. Extended families share homes, or are grouped together in small houses. The basic diets of the Shona on traditional lands include millet, rice, sweet potatoes, beans and corn. Their craftsmen are noted for their stone sculptures. Originally most families lived in clan-based communities under the leadership of a chieftain. The chieftains were once more involved in the day to day activities of the people, but the complexities of modern living have diminished their role. The position of the chieftain is an inherited position. With the shifting of culture and more urbanization, his power is now drastically reduced. Monogamy prevails, but polygamy is still allowed. The biggest reason it does not occur more frequently is the prohibitive cost of financing multiple households. When divorce occurs, part of the original bride price must be returned. The amount a divorce can cost is also based on the number of children and the length of the marriage. Uncles will willingly take on the raising of their nephews if a father dies. They may also inherit their brother’s wife, depending on the circumstances. Relatives consider rearing the children of the deceased as an honor, not just a duty. The advantage is that children often have many adults active and supportive in their lives. About 75 percent of the Shona identify themselves as Christians.